Sustainable Forest Management is the general and widely accepted framework, by which forests and their natural resources are recognized by the human societies. It is the forestry sector contribution to the global challenge of Sustainable Development that human societies are facing. It requires that the use of the forests has to be made in a way, and at a rhythm, that harmonizes in the present, the resources availability with the society needs, safeguarding the forest heritage for the future generations and valuing their unique multifunctional character. The forests are a natural renewable ecosystems that integrates relevant ecological, economic and social functions, at the local and global levels, interacting positively with other terrestrial ecosystems. Under this scope forest stands are the structural spatial units of sustainable forest management. In Europe there is an increasing interest in mixed stands silviculture as part of the sustainable forest management practice. This interest is based on the knowledge that mixed stands are ecologically more stable, less susceptible to natural catastrophic risks and more favourable to natural regeneration, providing a better use of soil properties. Mixed stands are also one of the key elements in the rural landscape dynamics, once the species reflect the geological, edaphic and climatic characteristics of each place, and are extremely valuable in maintaining biological diversity. At last, mixed stands are widely recognized as sink sources to capture the CO2 emissions and play an important role in the green house gases mitigation process. Mixed forests sustainable management is an emerging research area, relating different exact (numeric) and natural sciences and requiring the development of sound analytical tools. Former projects (PRAXIS FLOR/2127/95, POCTI/AGR/36332/2000, PIDDAC/234/02 POCI/AGR/58896/2004) provided 1st generation research tools and initial promising results, requiring further consistent research work. This project, connecting related sciences (forestry, ecology, mathematics, statistics and remote sensing) and using updated research tools, is designed to provide a comprehensive understanding of mixed forests in Portugal. The main topics concerns the maintenance of several mixed stands and plantations scatered in the country; early growth modelling and mixed forest dynamics; structural diversity vegetation assessment in mixed forests; alternative mixed forests silviculture and management practices; validation of Dryads growth model for mixed forests of Pinus pinaster and broadleaves in the Atlantic region; calibration of Dryads growth model for Quercus suber and Pinus pinea, in the Mediterranean region; assessment of forest types dynamics; mapping spatial distribution and carbon storage in mixed forest types. Under the scope of EU Strategic Research Agenda this project is a contribution for the 'Advancing knowledge on forest ecosystems' (4-2) and 'Adapting forestry to climate change' (4-3).